DeGirolami Article on the Waning of Free Exercise

I have a new article up titled, Free Exercise By Moonlight. Here’s the abstract:Marc DeGirolami

How is the current condition of religious free exercise, and religious accommodation in specific, best understood? What is the relationship of the two most important free exercise cases of the past half-century, Employment Division v. Smith and Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church and School v. EEOC? This essay explores four possible answers to these questions.

1. Smith and Hosanna-Tabor are the twin suns of religious accommodation under the Constitution. They are distinctively powerful approaches.

2. Hosanna-Tabor’s approach to constitutional free exercise is now more powerful than Smith’s. Smith has been eclipsed.

3. Hosanna-Tabor has shown itself to be feeble. It has been eclipsed by Smith.

4. Smith augured the waning of religious accommodation, which proceeds apace. Hosanna-Tabor does little to change that.

In describing these possibilities, the essay considers the cases themselves, various doctrinal developments (focusing on subsequent Supreme Court cases as well as lower court decisions interpreting Hosanna-Tabor), and the broader political and social context in which claims for religious accommodation are now received. It concludes that though each possibility has persuasive points (perhaps with the exception of the second), the last is most accurate.

Smith’s approach to free exercise continues to control for constitutional purposes and is, for more general political purposes, more entrenched than ever. Its admonition about fabulously remote threats of anarchy in a world where each “conscience is a law unto itself” has ironically become more apt as a warning against the multiplying number of secular interests argued to be legally cognizable than against religious accommodation run amok. There is no clearer manifestation of these developments than the recent emergence of theories maintaining that new dignitary and other third party harms resulting from religious accommodation ought to defeat religious freedom claims. These theories reflect the swollen ambit of state authority and defend surprising understandings of the limits of religious accommodation — understandings that pose grave threats to the American political tradition of providing generous religious exemptions from general laws. The ministerial exception simply represents the refracted glow of constitutional protection in the gathering gloom. It is free exercise by moonlight.

One Comment to “DeGirolami Article on the Waning of Free Exercise”

  1. I see this will be in San Diego! Congratulations!

    Jeff Sovern
    Professor of Law
    St. John’s University School of Law
    8000 Utopia Parkway
    Jamaica, NY 11439
    718-990-6429
    sovernj@stjohns.edu
    Co-coordinator, Consumer Law and Policy Blog at http://www.clpblog.org
    Bio page: http://www.stjohns.edu/academics/graduate/law/faculty/Profiles/Sovern
    SSRN Page: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/cf_dev/AbsByAuth.cfm?per_id=79181

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